The University of Stanford is one the few places, where early radio and radar laboratories had been established shortly before or during World War II.
As in Harvard and at the MIT, mathematicians and physicists came together in order to develope every possible application of radar like gun laying radar, radar for
air surveillance and to detect ships and submarines. As the scientific battle went on, Nazi Deutschland and the Allied developed radar features and countermeasures by the week.
Stanford was a place, were different institutes, companies and individuals came together: The US Army and Navy, people from Stanford, Harvard, AIL, Sperry and many other.
And among the scientists of Stanford there is one of special interest for us: Prof. Carroll, who ran the High Voltage Laboratory at Stanford in 1942. He is the same "Carroll", that was mentioned
in the famous Berlitz/Moore book as one of the two scientists (the other was named "Charlesworth"), who installed the test equipment onboard of the USS Eldridge.
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Leo Gianini remained Lecturer on
Illumination, and Harold F. Elliott, Charles V. Litton, and Alvin E. MacMahon were Lecturers on Communication. Most of the teaching at the graduate level was by Terman,
who taught vacuum tubes, radio and communication; Carroll, who taught the high-voltage courses; and Skilling, who taught circuit analysis and power circuits. Kindy handled
administration for the Department. Carroll ran the High Voltage research program.
Terman also helped launch the careers of Joseph Pettit, who later became Dean of Engineering at Stanford and
President of Georgia Tech, and Edward Ginzton, who played a major role in the design and construction at Stanford of the
first electron linear accelerator.
Also, during 1937, William Hansen, Professor of Physics, teamed with Sigurd and Russell Varian to develop the klystron
tube -- an electron tube in which bunching of electrons is produced by electric fields and which is used for the generation
and amplification of ultra-high frequency current.
Stanford University helped with free use of the physics laboratories and $100 for supplies. In return, Stanford was to share
in any profits. That $100 became one of Stanford's best investments. It brought in several million dollars in royalties. In
1948, the Varians formed their own company, Varian Associates. Varian grew to 8,100 employees with annual revenue of
1.5 billion dollars by 1994.
THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF THE GINZTON LABORATORY
Hansen pioneered the development of microwave
theory and techniques for testing microwave systems and gave courses on microwave theory at Stanford and
during World War II to physicists who were being recruited for research on the subject.
History of the Stanford Physics Department - By the end of the
Second World War, Bloch, working with Bill
Hansen and Martin Packard, had
succeeded in observing nuclear magnetic
resonance (NMR) in condensed matter by
the method of nuclear induction.